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Nicolas TRAPATEAU

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titre
Change from above in the early prescriptive pronouncing dictionaries of English
auteur
Jean-Louis Duchet, Nicolas Trapateau
article
13th Conference of the European Society for the Study of English, Aug 2016, Galway, Ireland. 2016, 〈http://www.esse2016.org/〉
annee_publi
2016
resume
Our research has been conducted on a database stemming from a fully computerized re-edition (Trapateau 2015) of John Walker's Critical Pronouncing Dictionary and Expositor of the English language (1791, 1809) providing exhaustive lists of lexical units belonging to a lexical set or to a stress pattern. 62 In Walker's dictionary the word vertigo has three competing pronunciations, two of which are the consequence of a pressure from above: “learnedly” [vɛːˈta ɪɡ o], “modishly” [vɛːˈtiːɡo], as opposed to “the genuine English analogy” of [vɛːtiɡo]. Walker yields to the learned in his Dictionary. Similar pressures have generated changes from above in stress placement, reluctance to palatalisation, and vowel quality. 1) Stress placement European, /010/ is superseded by the Latin stress pattern in /2010/. 2) Palatalisation The noun duke pronounced [duːk] or [dʒuːk] “is not so vulgar as the former. Educate[edʒukeɪt], [dj] prestige form. Courtesy has an elegant pronunciation in [tsi] which has prevailed on the vulgar pronunciation tʃi a back formation of courteous [ˈkɜːtʃəs]. 3) Vowels before /r/ The word merchant was pronounced with [aː] like clerk. The spelling pronunciation which prevailed, [ˈmɛːtʃənt], changed further to [ˈmɜːtʃənt]. The same is true of errand, mercy. 4) Diphthongs The word wind as a noun was diphthongized but the “polite circles” have imposed [wɪnd] as the standard pronunciation. The noun envelope is pronounced in the French way [onviˈloʊp] but the mere Englishman pronounces it like the verb envelop. The research will investigate such cases in which Walker says with ironical resignation that “in language as in many other cases, it is safer to be wrong with the polite than with the vulgar.”
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Communication dans un congrès
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titre
Inkhorn Terms: Some that Got Away.
auteur
Elena Sasu, Nicolas Trapateau
article
Fabienne Toupin, Brian Lowrey. Studies in Linguistic Variation and Change From Old to Middle English , Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015, 978-1-4438-7542-4
annee_publi
2015
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Chapitre d'ouvrage
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titre
‘Pedantick’, ‘polite’, or ‘vulgar’? a systematic analysis of eighteenth-century normative discourse on pronunciation in John Walker’s dictionary (1791)
auteur
Nicolas Trapateau
article
11th Conference of the European Society for the Study of English, Sep 2012, Istanbul, Turkey. Language & History, 59 (1), 2016, 〈10.1080/17597536.2016.1189663〉
annee_publi
2012
resume
John Walker is the first English lexicographer to provide a ‘critical’ pronouncing dictionary (1791) interspersed with his own critical notes on pronunciation. This paper identifies the phonological phenomena, whether praised or stigmatised, which are the targets of Walker’s qualifiers — for example, which syllable of the word vertigo should be stressed in order to sound ‘polite’ or ‘vulgar’ in the 1790s. Building on such data, the study elicits Walker’s sociolinguistic representation of the norm and the authorities who formulate it among the linguistic population of his time. This systematic analysis of Walker’s normative discourse on English pronunciation is based on a text-searchable electronic version of Walker’s dictionary.
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titre
Stress Placement in Pronouncing Dictionaries (1727–2010) : Latin Etymology vs. English Derivation
auteur
Jean-Louis Duchet, Nicolas Trapateau, Jeremy Castanier
article
Language and History, 2012, 55/2012 (1), pp.34-46. 〈10.1179/1759753612Z.0000000003〉
annee_publi
2012
resume
Variation in stress placement has so far not been studied very closely from a sociolinguistic perspective, although orthoepists since the eighteenth century have prescribed certain patterns and stigmatized others. Stress placement preferences are based on conflicting criteria (origin, including Latin and Greek etymologies, vs stress-neutral English derivation). This area of study remains partially unexplored in historical phonology. The period stretching from the eighteenth century to our time is characterized by changes that reveal the influence of opposing sets of rules, which are themselves connected to the cultural background of speakers more or less versed in Latin and French. The prescriptivism pervading works such as Walker’s Critical Pronouncing Dictionary provides evidence of conflicting tendencies affecting stress placement. This paper aims at revealing an evolution of these tendencies from Latin-based etymology to isomorphism over the last three centuries.
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