Accueil > Pages Perso

Laura Lazartigues

Doctorant -  UCA


Envoyer un message

Dernières publicationsHAL

pour "Laura LAZARTIGUES" :

titre
Differential use of Transitional Probabilities and Frequency in Statistical Learning of Pseudowords
auteur
Laura Lazartigues, Fabien Mathy, Frédéric Lavigne
article
International Conference on Interdisciplinary Advances in Statistical Learning, Jun 2022, San Sebastian, Spain
annee_publi
2022
resume
The ability to learn transitional probabilities (TPs) and frequency is central to language processing. Current evidence indicates that both frequency and transitional probability are involved in the memorization of sequences, but the questions of which prevails and why it would prevail in statistical learning remain unclear. The present study investigated the respective roles of transitional probability and frequency in statistical learning of pseudowords in two different tasks that focused on either prediction or recognition. The learning phase consisted of the repeated presentation of sixteen three-syllable pseudowords for which participants were asked to perform a target detection task on vowels (fully predictable based on TPs). The evolution of the rate of correct answer and response times during the learning phase was recorded. After the detection task, a two-alternative forced-choice task (2AFC) required participants to choose between a pseudoword and a lure. Results indicated a prevalence of TPs during the detection task, but a prevalence of frequency during the 2AFC task. Our findings suggests that TPs and frequency can be used flexibly depending on which process (learning or recognition) is more adapted to the task.
typdoc
Poster de conférence
Accès au texte intégral et bibtex
https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03688991/file/Lazartigues2022.pdf BibTex
titre
Learning Higher‐Order Transitional Probabilities in Nonhuman Primates
auteur
Arnaud Rey, Joël Fagot, Fabien Mathy, Laura Lazartigues, Laure Tosatto, Guillem Bonafos, Jean‐marc Freyermuth, Frédéric Lavigne
article
Cognitive Science, Wiley, 2022, 46 (4), ⟨10.1111/cogs.13121⟩
annee_publi
2022
resume
The extraction of cooccurrences between two events, A and B, is a central learning mechanism shared by all species capable of associative learning. Formally, the cooccurrence of events A and B appearing in a sequence is measured by the transitional probability (TP) between these events, and it corresponds to the probability of the second stimulus given the first (i.e., p(B|A)). In the present study, nonhuman primates (Guinea baboons, Papio papio) were exposed to a serial version of the XOR (i.e., exclusive-OR), in which they had to process sequences of three stimuli: A, B, and C. In this manipulation, first-order TPs (i.e., AB and BC) were uninformative due to their transitional probabilities being equal to .5 (i.e., p(B|A) = p(C|B) = .5), while secondorder TPs were fully predictive of the upcoming stimulus (i.e., p(C|AB) = 1). In Experiment 1, we found that baboons were able to learn second-order TPs, while no learning occurred on first-order TPs. In Experiment 2, this pattern of results was replicated, and a final test ruled out an alternative interpretation in terms of proximity to the reward. These results indicate that a non-human primate species can learn a nonlinearly separable problem such as the XOR. They also provide fine-grained empirical data to test models of statistical learning on the interaction between the learning of different orders of TPs. Recent bioinspired models of associative learning are also introduced as promising alternatives to the modeling of statistical learning mechanisms.
typdoc
Article dans une revue
Accès au texte intégral et bibtex
https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03631173/file/RFMLTBFL2022CS.pdf BibTex
titre
Probabilités transitionnelles de second-ordre dans l’apprentissage statistique de triplets
auteur
Laura Lazartigues
article
Psychologie. Université Côte d'Azur, 2022. Français. ⟨NNT : 2022COAZ2003⟩
annee_publi
2022
resume
Le traitement séquentiel est un mécanisme cognitif fondamental qui permet d'extraire des régularités en vue de faciliter l'apprentissage. La littérature en psychologie cognitive montre que l'extraction de ces régularités peut opérer en particulier via un apprentissage statistique. La majeure partie des travaux antérieurs s'est portée sur la notion de probabilité transitionnelle (PT) de premier-ordre, qui correspond à la probabilité d'un stimulus en fonction du précédent. Néanmoins, au sein de triplets, des PT de second-ordre (probabilité d'un stimulus en fonction de deux précédents) doivent être prises en considération, tant pour ses effets spécifiques qu'en interaction avec d'autres facteurs impliqués dans l'apprentissage statistique. Cette thèse s'est donnée pour objectif de déterminer les effets de trois facteurs au sein de l'apprentissage de triplets. Une série d'expérimentations dans le domaine de l'apprentissage a visé à manipuler au sein d'un ensemble de séquences : i les PT de premier-ordre (un stimulus en prédisant un autre) ainsi que celles de second-ordre (une combinaison de stimuli prédisant un autre stimulus), ii la structure de dépendance caractérisant les PT (adjacente vs. non-adjacente) et iii la fréquence des séquences. Nos expériences ont mis en exergue un apprentissage présent mais difficile des PT de second-ordre au sein de séquences visuomotrices et langagières, au bénéfice d'une prévalence des PT de premier-ordre entre éléments adjacents. Nos résultats ont également montré des interactions complexes entre PT de premier-ordre et PT de second-ordre. La discussion porte sur la capacité d'adaptation des participants qui utilisent préférentiellement certains facteurs en fonction du type de tâche, en l'occurrence, les PT lors de la prédiction de stimuli et l'utilisation de la fréquence lors de la mémorisation de séquences. Une dernière étude propose une ouverture relative à l'ubiquité du traitement séquentiel, soulignant le rôle prépondérant du traitement séquentiel y compris dans les tâches cognitives non-séquentielles par nature.
typdoc
Thèse
Accès au texte intégral et bibtex
https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-03663516/file/2022COAZ2003.pdf BibTex
titre
Statistical Learning of Second-Order Transitional Probabilities in Humans
auteur
Laura Lazartigues, Fabien Mathy, Frédéric Lavigne
article
62nd Virtual annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Nov 2021, Virtuel, United States
annee_publi
2021
resume
The order of stimuli within sequences and the transitional probabilities (TPs) these orders generate are central information in language acquisition, but less is known about how this type of information is extracted by general learning mechanisms. The present study focused on the statistical learning of second-order TPs (i.e., only the combination of two stimuli allowing to predict the third) of visual sequences. Eight three-item sequences exclusively governed by second-order TPs were presented. The response times were measured with oculometry. The task included a learning phase and a switch phase which reset the second-order TPs (e.g., the sequences ABC and BAF became respectively ABF and BAC). Results indicated a sole decrease of RTs between the second and the third stimulus and an increase of RTs during the switch phase that suggested the learnability of second-order TPs. We discuss this result in light of language acquisition.
typdoc
Poster de conférence
Accès au texte intégral et bibtex
https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03509457/file/Statistical%20Learning%20of%20Second-Order%20Transitional%20Probabilities%20in%20Humans.pdf BibTex
titre
Benefits and pitfalls of data compression in visual working memory
auteur
Laura Lazartigues, Frédéric Lavigne, Carlos Aguilar, Nelson Cowan, Fabien Mathy
article
Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, Springer Verlag, 2021, ⟨10.3758/s13414-021-02333-x⟩
annee_publi
2021
resume
Data compression in memory is a cognitive process allowing participants to cope with complexity to reduce information load. However, previous studies have not yet considered the hypothesis that this process could also lead to over-simplifying information due to haphazard amplification of the compression process itself. For instance, we could expect that the over-regularized features of a visual scene could produce false recognition of patterns, not because of storage capacity limits but because of an errant compression process. To prompt memory compression in our participants, we used multielement visual displays for which the underlying information varied in compressibility. The compressibility of our material could vary depending on the number of common features between the multi-dimensional objects in the displays. We measured both accuracy and response times by probing memory representations with probes that we hypothesized could modify the participants’ representations. We confirm that more compressible information facilitates performance, but a more novel finding is that compression can produce both typical memory errors and lengthened response times. Our findings provide clearer evidence of the forms of compression that participants carry out.
typdoc
Article dans une revue
Accès au bibtex
BibTex
titre
Probabilities, Dependencies and Frequency Are Not All Equally Involved in Artificial Word Learning
auteur
Laura Lazartigues, Fabien Mathy, Frédéric Lavigne
article
2021 Virtual APS Convention, May 2021, Virtuel, France
annee_publi
2021
resume
The ability to learn transitional probabilities (TPs), adjacent and non-adjacent dependencies and frequency is central to language processing. Current evidence indicates that both frequency and transitional probability impact the memorization of sequences, but it is not sure yet which type of information prevails. Also, adjacent and non-adjacent pairs do not seem to be equally learnable based on statistical learning. These three factors however are not yet integrated into a unique model predicting learning, whereas they are all supposed to play a critical role in statistical learning. The present study thus investigated the concurrent roles of transitional probability, frequency and adjacency within a single task aiming at having participants learn artificial words. Participants were exposed to four conditions, with each condition consisting in four words (sequences of three syllables without meaning) governed by a specific rule. The first condition tested first order TP between adjacent elements, where the second syllable only allowed to predict the third. The second condition tested first order TP between non-adjacent elements, where the first syllable only allowed to predict the third. The next condition tested second order TP, where only the combination of the two first syllables allowed to predict the third. The last condition tested the effect of the frequency for a given second order TP, by presenting two words five times per block, a third word two times per block and the fourth word eight times per block. All words were presented randomly in each block of the experiment. Participants had to perform a target detection task on the vowels that corresponded to the last syllable of each word, and which were fully predictable from the rules that governed the conditions. Correct answer rates and response times (RTs) were recorded. Each participant completed five sessions of ten blocks (eighty trials per block), one session per day for five days. A transfer block at the end of the last session was added to test whether participants could adapt to a switch inverting the vowels (but maintaining the rest of the rules). The results showed that words were learned in all conditions with an increase of correct answer rates, a decrease of RTs during the learning phase, and a drop of performance during the switch phase. Results further indicated easier learning of first order TPs with higher correct responses and shorter RTs compared second order TPs. We also observed an advantage for adjacent dependencies over non-adjacent ones. Moreover, a low frequency caused lower correct answer rates and slower RTs and seemed to interfere with the learning of new words . Analysis of frequency and first order TPs in the condition where the effect of the frequency for a given second order TP was tested indicated a prevalence of TPs over frequency at the end of the learning process.
typdoc
Poster de conférence
Accès au texte intégral et bibtex
https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03509434/file/Transitional%20Probabilities%2C%20Dependencies%20and%20Frequency%20are%20Not%20All%20Equally%20involved%20in%20Artificial%20Word%20Learning.pdf BibTex
titre
Statistical learning of unbalanced exclusive-or temporal sequences in humans
auteur
Laura Lazartigues, Fabien Mathy, Frédéric Lavigne
article
PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2021, 16 (2), pp.e0246826. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0246826⟩
annee_publi
2021
resume
A pervasive issue in statistical learning has been to determine the parameters of regularity extraction. Our hypothesis was that the extraction of transitional probabilities can prevail over frequency if the task involves prediction. Participants were exposed to four repeated sequences of three stimuli (XYZ) with each stimulus corresponding to the position of a red dot on a touch screen that participants were required to touch sequentially. The temporal and spatial structure of the positions corresponded to a serial version of the exclusive-or (XOR) that allowed testing of the respective effect of frequency and first- and second-order transitional probabilities. The XOR allowed the first-order transitional probability to vary while being not completely related to frequency and to vary while the second-order transitional probability was fixed (p(Z|X,Y) = 1). The findings show that first-order transitional probability prevails over frequency to predict the second stimulus from the first and that it also influences the prediction of the third item despite the presence of second-order transitional probability that could have offered a certain prediction of the third item. These results are particularly informative in light of statistical learning models.
typdoc
Article dans une revue
Accès au bibtex
BibTex
titre
Organization in Working Memory is Driven by the Compressibility of Information
auteur
Laura Lazartigues, Frédéric Lavigne, Carlos Aguilar, Fabien Mathy
article
60th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Nov 2019, Montréal, Canada
annee_publi
2019
resume
Working memory (WM) is known to be limited in capacity, but mechanisms based on compression of information could contribute to the storage process. It has been shown that chunking governed by compression could be one of these mechanisms. The present study investigated how chunks can be formed using patterns to be discovered on the spot, that is, without these chunks being already formed in long-term memory. We predicted that a compact representation could leave room in WM at the expense of the quality. Our method was based on a compressibility metric that allowed prediction of memory errors linked to a lossy compression process. Our result showed that RTs and errors depended on compressibility, and those measures might be interpretable in terms of over-compressibility. We discuss the results to conclude that the present study offers a comprehension of WM capacity which cannot be accounted easily by shared-allocation models or discrete-slots models.
typdoc
Poster de conférence
Accès au bibtex
BibTex
titre
Statistical learning of adjacent and non-adjacent pairs in non-linguistic short sequences
auteur
Laura Lazartigues, Fabien Mathy, Arnaud R Rey, Joël R Fagot, Frédéric Lavigne
article
21st Conference of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology (ESCOP), Sep 2019, Tenerife, Spain
annee_publi
2019
resume
The ability to learn adjacent and non-adjacent pairs is central in language processing. However, current evidence indicates that adjacent and non-adjacent pairs are not equally learnable. The present study investigated the role of transitional probabilities during the learning of adjacent and non-adjacent pairs appearing in non-linguistic short sequences. Participants were exposed to four sequences of three stimuli ABC repeated randomly during the experiment, with each stimulus corresponding to a given position of a dot on a touchscreen. In the first experiment the transition BC of the triplet ABC was predictable while the first transition AB was unpredictable. The second experiment required the learning of the fully predictable non-adjacent pair AC while the transitions AB and BC were unpredictable. The results showed that participants learned adjacent pairs and had greater difficulty to learn the non-adjacent pairs. These data provide additional constraints for modeling statistical learning mechanisms.
typdoc
Poster de conférence
Accès au bibtex
BibTex
titre
Statistical learning of first and second order transitional probabilities
auteur
Laura Lazartigues, Fabien Mathy, Arnaud R Rey, Joël R Fagot, Frédéric Lavigne
article
Interdisciplinary Advances in Statistical Learning, Jun 2019, San Sebastian, Spain
annee_publi
2019
resume
The present study manipulates first and second order transitional probabilities during the statistical learning of short sequences. Participants were exposed to four sequences of three stimuli (ABC) repeated during the task, with each stimulus corresponding to the position of a red dot on a touchscreen. Participants were required to touch the dots as quickly as possible and response times were recorded between the first two stimuli (Transition Time 1 or TT1) and between the last two stimuli (TT2). In the first experiment the transition AB of a triplet ABC was fully predictable (p(B|A) = 1) while the second transition BC was unpredictable (p(C|B) = .5). The second experiment was a serial version of the exclusive-or (XOR), all first order transitional probabilities were equally unpredictable (p(B|A) = .5, p(C|B) = .5), while the combination of the first two stimuli fully predicted the last stimulus (p(C|AB) = 1). Results showed that participants were able to learn both type of transitional probabilities. The different evolution patterns of TT1 and TT2 and their implications in term of statistical learning mechanisms are discussed.
typdoc
Poster de conférence
Accès au bibtex
BibTex
  • + de résultats dans la Collection HAL du laboratoire BCL
  • Voir l'ensemble des résultats sur la plateforme HAL
  • Anciennes productions