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Fabien Mathy

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titre
Compression in Working Memory and Its Relationship With Fluid Intelligence
auteur
Mustapha Chekaf, Nicolas Gauvrit, Alessandro Guida, Fabien Mathy
article
Cognitive Science, Wiley, 2018, 42, pp.904 - 922. 〈10.1111/cogs.12601〉
annee_publi
2018
resume
Working memory has been shown to be strongly related to fluid intelligence; however, our goal is to shed further light on the process of information compression in working memory as a determining factor of fluid intelligence. Our main hypothesis was that compression in working memory is an excellent indicator for studying the relationship between working‐memory capacity and fluid intelligence because both depend on the optimization of storage capacity. Compressibility of memoranda was estimated using an algorithmic complexity metric. The results showed that compressibility can be used to predict working‐memory performance and that fluid intelligence is well predicted by the ability to compress information. We conclude that the ability to compress information in working memory is the reason why both manipulation and retention of information are linked to intelligence. This result offers a new concept of intelligence based on the idea that compression and intelligence are equivalent problems.
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https://hal.univ-rennes2.fr/hal-01873321/file/cogs.12601.pdf BibTex
titre
Spatialization in working memory is related to literacy and reading direction: Culture “literarily” directs our thoughts
auteur
Alessandro Guida, Ahmed Megreya, Magali Lavielle-Guida, Yvonnick Noël, Fabien Mathy, Jean-Philippe Van Dijck, Elger Abrahamse
article
Cognition, Elsevier, 2018, 175, pp.96 - 100. 〈10.1016/j.cognition.2018.02.013〉
annee_publi
2018
resume
The ability to maintain arbitrary sequences of items in the mind contributes to major cognitive faculties, such as language, reasoning, and episodic memory. Previous research suggests that serial order working memory is grounded in the brain's spatial attention system. In the present study, we show that the spatially defined mental organization of novel item sequences is related to literacy and varies as a function of reading/writing direction. Specifically, three groups (left-to-right Western readers, right-to-left Arabic readers, and Arabic-speaking illiterates) were asked to memorize random (and non-spatial) sequences of color patches and determine whether a subsequent probe was part of the memorized sequence (e.g., press left key) or not (e.g., press right key). The results showed that Western readers mentally organized the sequences from left to right, Arabic readers spontaneously used the opposite direction, and Arabic-speaking illiterates showed no systematic spatial organization. This finding suggests that cultural conventions shape one of the most "fluid" aspects of human cognition, namely, the spontaneous mental organization of novel non-spatial information.
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titre
Chunk formation in immediate memory and how it relates to data compression
auteur
Mustapha Chekaf, Nelson Cowan, Fabien Mathy
article
Cognition, Elsevier, 2016, 155, pp.96 - 107. 〈10.1016/j.cognition.2016.05.024〉
annee_publi
2016
resume
This paper attempts to evaluate the capacity of immediate memory to cope with new situations in relation to the compressibility of information likely to allow the formation of chunks. We constructed a task in which untrained participants had to immediately recall sequences of stimuli with possible associations between them. Compressibility of information was used to measure the chunkability of each sequence on a single trial. Compressibility refers to the recoding of information in a more compact representation. Although compressibility has almost exclusively been used to study long-term memory, our theory suggests that a compression process relying on redundancies within the structure of the list materials can occur very rapidly in immediate memory. The results indicated a span of about three items when the list had no structure, but increased linearly as structure was added. The amount of information retained in immediate memory was maximal for the most compressible sequences, particularly when information was ordered in a way that facilitated the compression process. We discuss the role of immediate memory in the rapid formation of chunks made up of new associations that did not already exist in long-term memory, and we conclude that immediate memory is the starting place for the reorganization of information.
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titre
Memory vs. mental picture in the context of learning: An experimental study
auteur
Sébastien Duchêne, Rafai Ismael, Eric Guerci, Ariane Lambert-Mogiliansky, Fabien Mathy
article
10th international conference on Quantum Interaction, Jul 2016, San Fransisco, United States. 2016
annee_publi
2016
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Poster
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titre
Beyond transitional probabilities: learning XOR in non-human primates
auteur
Arnaud Rey, Frédéric Lavigne, Fabien Mathy, Joël Fagot
article
Fifth Implicit Learning Seminar, Jun 2016, Lancaster, United Kingdom. 2016, 〈http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/implicit-learning-seminar/〉
annee_publi
2016
resume
Paper presented at the Fifth Implicit Learning Seminar, Lancaster, UK.
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Communication dans un congrès
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titre
The influence of presentation order on category transfer
auteur
Fabien Mathy, Jacob Feldman
article
Experimental Psychology, Hogrefe, 2016, pp.59-69. 〈10.1027/1618-3169/a000312〉
annee_publi
2016
resume
This study of supervised categorization shows how different kinds of category representations are influenced by the order in which training examples are presented. We used the well-studied 5-4 category structure of Medin and Schaffer (1978), which allows transfer of category learning to new stimuli to be discriminated as a function of rule-based or similarity-based category knowledge. In the rule-based training condition (thought to facilitate the learning of abstract logical rules and hypothesized to produce rule-based classification), items were grouped by subcategories and randomized within each subcategory. In the similarity-based training condition (thought to facilitate associative learning and hypothesized to produce exemplar classification), transitions between items within the same category were determined by their featural similarity and subcategories were ignored. We found that transfer patterns depended on whether the presentation order was similarity-based, or rule-based, with the participants particularly capitalizing on the rule-based order.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01372000/file/MathyFeldman547.pdf BibTex
titre
Chunk formation in immediate memory and how it relates to data compression
auteur
Mustapha Chekaf, Nelson Cowan, Fabien Mathy
article
Cognition, Elsevier, 2016
annee_publi
2016
resume
This paper attempts to evaluate the capacity of immediate memory to cope with new situations in relation to the compressibility of information likely to allow the formation of chunks. We constructed a task in which untrained participants had to immediately recall sequences of stimuli with possible associations between them. Compressibility of information was used to measure the chunkability of each sequence on a single trial. Compressibility refers to the recoding of information in a more compact representation. Although compressibility has almost exclusively been used to study long-term memory, our theory suggests that a compression process relying on redundancies within the structure of the list materials can occur very rapidly in immediate memory. The results indicated a span of about three items when the list had no structure, but increased linearly as structure was added. The amount of information retained in immediate memory was maximal for the most compressible sequences, particularly when information was ordered in a way that facilitated the compression process. We discuss the role of immediate memory in the rapid formation of chunks made up of new associations that did not already exist in long-term memory, and we conclude that immediate memory is the starting place for the reorganization of information.
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Article dans une revue
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01372012/file/ChekafCowanMathy.pdf BibTex
titre
Developmental Abilities to Form Chunks in Immediate Memory and Its Non-Relationship to Span Development
auteur
Fabien Mathy, Michael Fartoukh, Nicolas Gauvrit, Alessandro Guida
article
Frontiers in Psychology, Frontiers, 2016
annee_publi
2016
resume
Both adults and children --by the time they are two to three years old-- have a general ability to recode information to increase memory efficiency. This paper aims to evaluate the ability of untrained children aged six to ten years old to deploy such a recoding process in immediate memory. A large sample of 374 children were given a task of immediate serial report based on SIMON, a classic memory game made of four colored buttons (red, green, yellow, blue) requiring players to reproduce a sequence of colors within which repetitions eventually occur. It was hypothesized that a primitive ability across all ages (since theoretically already available in toddlers) to detect redundancies allows the span to increase whenever information can be recoded on the fly. The chunkable condition prompted the formation of chunks based on the perceived structure of color repetition within to-be-recalled sequences of colors. Our result shows a similar linear improvement of memory span with age for both chunkable and non-chunkable conditions. The amount of information retained in immediate memory systematically increased for the groupable sequences across all age groups, independently of the average age-group span that was measured on sequences that contained fewer repetitions. This result shows that chunking gives young children an equal benefit as older children. We discuss the role of recoding in the expansion of capacity in immediate memory and the potential role of data compression in the formation of chunks in long-term memory.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01358896/file/fpsyg-07-00201.pdf BibTex
titre
Inner Speech sustains Predictable Task Switching: Direct Evidence in Adults
auteur
Lucie Laurent, Jean-Louis Millot, Patrice Andrieu, Valérie Camos, Caroline Floccia, Fabien Mathy
article
Journal of Cognitive Psychology, Taylor & Francis edition, 2016, 28, 〈10.1080/20445911.2016.1164173〉
annee_publi
2016
resume
It has been proposed that inner speech supports task selection in task switching studies, especially when the need for endogenous control is increased. This has been established through the suppression of inner speech in cognitive-flexibility tasks that leads to poorer performance. The aim of this study is to quantify the role of inner speech in a flexibility task by using surface laryngeal electromyography, which, contrary to previous studies, enables participants to freely verbalize the tasks. We manipulated endogenous and exogenous flexibility in a mathematical switching task paradigm. Experiment 1 shows that inner speech acts as a support for switching and is recruited more often when the tasks are of an endogenous type. The main result of Experiment 2 that language is recruited more for the mixing cost than for the switch cost (regardless of the endogenous factor) extends past findings obtained through articulatory suppression.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01371987/file/LAURENT%20et%20al.pdf BibTex
titre
A test of a Time-Based Resource-Sharing & Switching (TBR−S2) model
auteur
Nicolas Gauvrit, Fabien Mathy
article
56th Annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Nov 2015, Chicago, IL, United States. 2015
annee_publi
2015
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Communication dans un congrès
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